LIBRARY OF DEATH PENALTY DEFENSE TRAINING MATERIALS

For Review by Attorneys Seeking Appointment by the California Supreme Court in Automatic Appeals and/or Capital Habeas Corpus Proceedings.  Available by Appointment at the California Appellate Project.

(Links are to Westlaw.com, who will charge the user's account for on-line access)

July 2007

BOOKS:

Rivkind, Nina and Shatz, Steven, Cases and Materials on the Death Penalty, West Group, 2001

Coyne, Randall & Entzeroth, Lyn, Capital Punishment and the Judicial Process, 2nd Edition, Carolina Academic Press (2001). [This law school case book can serve as an introduction to selected topics in capital litigation. In particular, counsel should direct their attention to Chapters 3-11.]

Erwin, Millman, et al., California Criminal Defense Practice, Volume 4, Chapter 87: Death Penalty, Matthew Bender (1998).

Grandsaert, John L. & McWilliams, James D., Death Penalty Cases, in California Criminal Law Procedure and Practice, Fourth Ed., Chapter 55, Continuing Education of the Bar (1996).

Ninth Circuit Judicial Council, Ninth Circuit Capital Punishment Handbook (1999).

California Appellate Project, Representation in Capital Appeals and Habeas Corpus Proceedings [a comprehensive litigation ?how to? practice manual].

California Appellate Project, Death Penalty Information Bank Index [an extensive index of death penalty law and practice, with topic by topic reference to relevant case law, briefs, petitions and other pleadings].

ARTICLES AND CASE LAW IN HARDCOPY:


Avena v. Mexico International Court of Justice 3/31/2004 General List No.128.

Blume, John, Ten Years of Payne: Victim Impact Evidence in Capital Cases (98 Cornell L. Review 257) (2003)

Blume, John, Mental Health Issues in Criminal Cases: The Elements of a Competent and Reliable Mental Health Examination, The Advocate, Vol. 17, No. 4 (KY Dept. of Public Advocacy), August 1995.

Bright, Stephen B., Challenging Racial Discrimination in Capital Cases, The Champion, Vol. XXII, No. 1 (January/ February 1997).

Bright, Stephen B., Discrimination, Death and Denial: The Tolerance of Racial Discrimination in Infliction of the Death Penalty, 35 Santa Clara Law Review 433 (1995).

Burt, Michael, Effective Capital Representation in the 90s, CACJ Forum, Vol. 20, No. 2, p. 23 (June 1993).

Coyne, Randall & Entzeroth, Lyn, Report Regarding Implementation of the American Bar Association's Recommendations and Resolutions Concerning the Death Penalty and Calling For a Moratorium on Executions, 4 Georgetown Journal on Fighting Poverty 3 (Fall 1996).

Crocker, Phyllis L., Childhood Abuse and Adult Murder: Implications For, 77 North Carolina Law Review 1143 (March 1999).

Crocker, Phyllis L., Concepts of Culpability and Deathworthiness: Differentiating Between Guilt and Punishment in Death Penalty Cases, 66 Fordham Law Review 21 (1997).

Goodpaster, Gary, The Trial for Life: Effective Assistance of Counsel in Death Penalty Cases, 58 NYULR 299 (May, 1983)

Haney, Craig, The Social Context of Capital Murder: Social Histories and the Logic of Mitigation, 35 Santa Clara Law Review 547 (1995).

 

Haney, Craig, Mental Health Issues in Long-Term Solitary and ?Supermax? Confinement Crime and Delinquency, Vol. 49 No 1 (January 2003)

Holzman, Beth F., The Absence of Malice, The Changing Face of California's Homicide Prosecutions, CACJ Forum, Vol. 23, No. 3-4 (Oct. 1996)

Liebman, James S., The Overproduction of Death, 100 Columbia Law Review 2030 (December 2000).

Logan, Deana Dorman, Learning to Observe Signs of Mental Impairment, CACJ Forum, Vol. 19, No. 5-6, p. 40 (1992).

Miller, Jill, The Growing Need for Early and Comprehensive Mitigation Investigations, reprinted with permission in The Fight for Life, March 1, 1998, published by the Capital Division of the Tennessee District Public Defenders Conference.

No author, A New Test for Evaluating Eighth Amendment Challenges to Lethal Injections, 120 HVLR 1301, (March 2007)

Poulos, John W., The Lucas Court and Capital Punishment: The Original Understanding of the Special Circumstances, 30 Santa Clara Law Review 333 (Spring 1990).

Poulos, John W., The Lucas Court and the Penalty Phase of the Capital Trial: The Original Understanding, 27 San Diego Law Review 521 (1990).

Ricciardulli, Alex, Attacking the Constitutionality of Section 190.2 Special Circumstances, CACJ Forum, Vol.22, No.3, p. 31 (Nov. 1995).

Shatz, Steven F. & Rivkind, Nina, The California Death Penalty Scheme: Requiem for Furman? (72 N. Y. U. L. Rev. 1293) (1997).

Slobogin & Mashburn, The Criminal Defense Lawyer's Fiduciary Duty Clients with Mental Disability, 68 Fordham Law Review 1581 (April 2000)

Steiker, Carol S. & Steiker, Jordan M., Sober Second Thoughts: Reflections on Two Decades of Constitutional Regulation of Capital Punishment, 109 Harvard Law Review 355 (1995)

Tomes, Jonathan P., Damned If You Do, Damned If You Don't: The Use of Mitigation Experts in Death Penalty Litigation, (24 Am. J. Crim. L. 359) (Spring, 1997).

White, Welsh, Effective Assistance of Counsel in Capital Cases: The Evolving Standard of Care, (1993 U. Ill. L. Rev. 323) (1993).


VIDEO TAPES:

Inside the California Supreme Court, [11 minutes] California Supreme Court (2002) Handling Death Penalty Appeals & Related Habeas Corpus Proceedings [2 tapes, approximately 2 1/2 hours], California Supreme Court (May 1999)

 

How to Win a Capital Case in the 1990's, Association of the Bar of the City of New York (1992)

1. Successfully Representing Capital Defendants in the 1990's

2. The Changing World of Habeas Corpus

3. Non-Legal Avenues

CASES:

UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT

8th AMENDMENT, DUE PROCESS LIMITS, and CIVIL RIGHTS ACTIONS APPLICABLE to  DEATH PENALTY SCHEMES

Furman v. Georgia, 408 U.S. 238 (1972)

Gregg v. Georgia, 428 U.S. 238 (1976)

Proffitt v. Florida, 428 U.S. 242 (1976)

Jurek v. Texas, 428 U.S. 262 (1976)

Woodson v. North Carolina, 428 U.S. 280 (1976)

(Stanislaus) Roberts v. Louisiana, 428 U.S. 325 (1976)

Pulley v. Harris, 465 U.S. 37 (1984)

Coker v. Georgia, 433 U.S. 584 (1977)

Enmund v. Florida, 458 U.S. 782 (1982)

Tison v. Arizona, 481 U.S. 137 (1987)

Stanford v. Kentucky, 492 U.S. 361 (1989)

Penry v. Lynaugh, 492 U.S. 302 (1989)

Ford v. Wainwright, 477 U.S. 399 (1986)

McClesky v. Kemp, 481 U.S. 259 (1987)

Herrera v. Collins, 506 U.S. 390 (1993)

Atkins v. Virginia, 536 U.S. 304 (2002)

Roper v. Simmons, 543 US 551 (2005)

Medellín v. Dretke, 125 S.Ct. 2088_(2005)

Hill v. McDonough, 126 S.Ct. 2096 (2006)

AGGRAVATING CIRCUMSTANCES, EVIDENCE, INSTRUCTIONS

Gardner v. Florida, 430 U.S. 349 (1977)

Godfrey v. Georgia, 444 U.S. 420 (1980)

Maynard v. Cartwright, 486 U.S. 356 (1988)

Lewis v. Jeffers, 497 U.S. 764 (1990)

Walton v. Arizona, 497 U.S. 639 (1990)

Arave v. Creech, 507 U.S. 463 (1993)

Zant v. Stephens, 462 U.S. 862 (1983)

Lowenfield v. Phelps, 484 U.S. 231 (1988)

Johnson v. Mississippi, 486 U.S. 578 (1988)

Payne v. Tennessee, 501 U.S. 808 (1991)

Dawson v. Delaware, 503 U.S. 159 (1992)

Romano v. Oklahoma, 512 U.S. 1 (1994)

Kelly v. South Carolina, 534 US 246 (2002)

MITIGATING CIRCUMSTANCES, EVIDENCE, INSTRUCTIONS

Lockett v. Ohio, 438 U.S. 586 (1978)

Eddings v. Oklahoma, 455 U.S. 104 (1982)

Skipper v. South Carolina, 476 U.S. 1 (1986)

Hitchcock v. Dugger, 481 U.S. 393 (1987)

Franklin v. Lynaugh, 487 U.S. 164 (1988)

Mills v. Maryland, 486 U.S. 367 (1988)

Penry v. Lynaugh, 492 U.S. 302 (1989)

Boyde v. California, 494 U.S. 370 (1990)

Walton v. Arizona, 497 U.S. 639 (1990) (Justice Scalia)

McKoy v. North Carolina, 494 U.S. 433 (1990)

Simmons v. South Carolina, 512 U.S. 154 (1994)

Buchanan v. Angelone, 522 U.S. 269, 118 S.Ct. 757 (1998)

Rompilla v. Beard, 125 S.Ct. 2456 (2005)

OTHER PENALTY PHASE INSTRUCTIONS

California v. Ramos, 463 U.S. 992 (1983), on remand

People v. Ramos (II), 37 Cal.3d 136 (1984)

California v. Brown, 479 U.S. 538 (1987), after remand, People v. Brown, 45 Cal.3d 1247 (1988)

Tuilaepa v. California, 512 U.S. 967 (1994)

Blystone v. Pennsylvania, 494 U.S. 299 (1990)

Boyde v. California, 494 U.S. 370 (1990)

JURY SELECTION, DELIBERATIONS and 6th AMENDMENT GUARANTEES

Wainwright v. Witt, 469 U.S. 810 (1985)

Batson v. Kentucky, 476 U.S. 79 (1986)

Lockhart v. McCree, 476 U.S. 162 (1986)

Turner v. Murray, 476 U.S. 28 (1986)

Gray v. Mississippi, 481 U.S. 648 (1987)

Ross v. Oklahoma, 487 U.S. 81 (1988)

Mu'min v. Virginia, 500 U.S.415 (1990)

Morgan v. Illinois, 504 U.S. 719 (1992)

Greene v. Georgia, 519 U.S. 145 (1996)

Ring v. Arizona, 536 U.S. 584 (2002)

Miller-El v. Dretke, 2004 WL 352542 (2004)

Uttecht v. (Cal Coburn) Brown 127 S.Ct. 2218 (2007)

APPELLATE REVIEW

Cabana v. Bullock, 474 U.S. 376 (1986)

Clemons v. Mississippi, 494 U.S. 738 (1990)

Richmond v. Lewis, 506 U.S. 40 (1992)

Stringer v. Black, 503 U.S. 222 (1992)

People v. Bacigalupo, 6 Cal.4th 457 (1993)

Tuggle v. Netherland, 516 U.S. 10 (1995)

Pace v. DiGuglielmo, 544 US 208 (2005)

RIGHT TO EFFECTIVE ASSISTANCE OF COUNSEL

AND APPOINTMENT OF COMPETENT EXPERTS

Strickland v. Washington, 466 U.S. 668 (1984)

Ake v. Oklahoma, 470 U.S. 68 (1985)

Williams (Terry) v. Taylor, 529 US 362 (2000)

Woodford v. Visciotti, 537 US 1149 (2002)

Wiggins v. Smith, 539 US 510 (2003)

Pompilla v. Beard, 545 US 374 (2005)
Schriro v. (Jeffrey) Landrigan, 127 S.Ct. 1933 (2007)

PROSECUTORIAL MISCONDUCT

Caldwell v. Mississippi, 472 U.S. 320 (1985)

Darden v. Wainwright, 477 U.S. 168 (1986)

Banks v. Dretke, 540 US 668 (2004)

POST-CONVICTION

McClesky v. Zant, 499 U.S. 467 (1991)

Pace v. DiGuglielmo, 125 S.Ct. 1807 (2005)


CALIFORNIA SUPREME COURT

 

GENERAL

People v. Rodriguez, 42 Cal.3d 730 (1986)

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES

(Ann. Cal. Penal Code §190.2)

Insufficient narrowing claims

People v. Wader, 5 Cal.4th 610 (1993)

People v. Crittenden, 9 Cal.4th 83 (1994)

People v. Sanchez, 12 Cal.4th 1 (1995)

People v. Arias, 13 Cal.4th 92 (1996)

Financial gain special circumstance (§190.2(a)(1))

People v. Bigelow, 37 Cal.3d 731 (1984)

People v. (Gary) Howard, 44 Cal.3d 375 (1988)

People v. Edelbacher, 47 Cal.3d 983 (1989)

People v. Mickey, 54 Cal.3d 612 (1991)

People v. (Albert) Howard, 1 Cal.4th 1132 (1992)

People v. Noguera, 4 Cal.4th 599 (1992)

People v. Padilla, 11 Cal.4th 891 (1995)

People v. Jackson, 13 Cal.4th 1164 (1996)

People v. Staten, 24 Cal.4th 434 (2000)

People v. Catlin, 26 Cal.4th 81 (2001)

People v. McDermott, 28 Cal.4th 946 (2002) 

People v. Michaels, 28 Cal.4th 486 (2002) 

People v. Hernandez, 30 Cal.4th 835 (2003) 

People v. Sapp, 31 Cal.4th 240 (2003) 

People v. Crew, 31 Cal.4th 822 (2003) 

Prior murder special circumstance (§190.2(a)(2))

People v. Hendricks, 43 Cal.3d 584 (1987) 

People v. Malone, 47 Cal.3d 1 (1988)

People v. Andrews, 49 Cal.3d 200 (1989)

People v. Wharton, 53 Cal.3d 522 (1991) 

People v. Horton, 11 Cal.4th 1068 (1995)

People v. Ray, 13 Cal. 4th 313 (1996)

People v. Williams, 16 Cal.4th 153 (1998)

People v. Gurule, 28 Cal.4th 557 (2002)

People v. Danks, 32 Cal.4th 269 (2004)

Multiple murder special circumstance (§190.2(a)(3))

People v. Turner, 37 Cal.3d 302 (1984), overturned by People v. Anderson, 43 Cal.3d 1104 (1987)

People v. Crandell, 46 Cal.3d 833 (1988)

People v. Bunyard, 45 Cal.3d 1189 (1988)

People v. Hamilton, 48 Cal.3d 1142 (1989)

People v. (Darren) Williams, 16 Cal.4th 635 (1997) 

People v. Dennis, 17 Cal.4th 468 (1998)

People v. Coddington, 23 Cal.4th 529 (2000)

People v. Lucero, 23 Cal.4th 692 (2000)

People v. Boyette, 29 Cal. 4th 382 (2002)

People v. Gomez, 107 Cal.App. 4th 328 (2003)

Avoiding or preventing arrest special circumstance (§ 190.2(a)(5))

People v. Bigelow, 37 Cal.3d 731 (1984)

People v. Coleman, 48 Cal.3d 112 (1989)

People v. Cummings, 4 Cal.4th 1233 (1993)

People v. Johnson, 4 Cal.4th 1 (1993)

Concealment or delivery of destructive device special circumstance (§190.2(a)(6))

People v. Clark, 50 Cal.3d 583 (1990)

Peace officer special circumstance (§190.2(a)(7))

People v. Rodriguez, 42 Cal.3d 730 (1986)

People v. Odle, 45 Cal.3d 386 (1988)

People v. Gonzalez, 51 Cal.3d 1179 (1990)

People v. (Dennis) Mayfield, 14 Cal.4th 668

Witness special circumstance (§190.2(a)(10))

People v. Weidert, 39 Cal.3d 836 (1985)

People v. Garrison, 47 Cal.3d 746 (1989)

People v. Sanders, 51 Cal.3d 471 (1990)

People v. Benson, 52 Cal.3d 754 (1990) 

People v. Beardslee, 53 Cal.3d 68 (1991) 

People v. Stanley, 10 Cal.4th 764 (1995)

People v. (Troy) Jones, 13 Cal.4th 535(1996)

Heinous, atrocious and cruel special circumstance (§190.2(a)(14))

People v. Superior Court (Engert), 31 Cal.3d 797 (1982)

People v. Sanders, 51 Cal.3d 47 (1990)

Lying-in-wait special circumstance (§190.2(a)(15))

People v. Morales, 48 Cal.3d 527 (1989)

People v. Edwards, 54 Cal.3d 787 (1991)

People v. Sims, 5 Cal.4th 405 (1993)

People v. Ceja, 4 Cal.4th 1134 (1993)(Justice Kennard, concurring)

People v. Carpenter, 15 Cal.4th 312 (1997)
People v. (Dean) Carter, 36 Cal.4th 1114 (2005) 

Felony murder special circumstance (§190.2(a)(17))

Mental state for actual killers and accomplices

Carlos v. Superior Court, 35 Cal.3d 131 (1983) 

People v. Anderson, 42 Cal.3d 1104 (1987)

People v. Estrada, 11 Cal.4th 568 (1995) 

People v. Beeler, 9 Cal.4th 953 (1995) 

People v. Marshall, 15 Cal.4th 1 (1997)

People v. (Daren) Williams, 16 Cal.4th 635 (1997)

Independent felonious purpose requirement

People v. Green, 27 Cal.3d 1 (1980)

People v. Thompson, 27 Cal.3d 303 (1980)

Burglary

People v. (Blufford) Hayes, 52 Cal.3d 577 (1990)

People v. Clair, 2 Cal.4th 629 (1992)

Kidnapping

People v. Bigelow, 37 Cal.3d 731 (1984)

People v. Pensinger, 52 Cal.3d 1210 (1991) 

People v. Alcala, 4 Cal.4th 742 (1992) 

People v. Raley, 2 Cal.4th 870 (1992)

Arson

People v. Clark, 50 Cal.3d 583 (1990)

Robbery

People v. (Blufford) Hayes, 52 Cal.3d 577 (1990)

People v. Webster, 54 Cal.3d 411 (1991)

People v. Kelly, 1 Cal.4th 495 (1992)

People v. (Robert) Wilson, 3 Cal.4th 026 (1992)

People v. Zapien, 4 Cal.4th 929 (1993)

People v. (Sammy) Marshall, 15 Cal.4th 1 (1997)
People v. (Fermin)Ledesma, 39 Cal.4th 641 (2006)

Rape

People v. Kelly, 1 Cal.4th 495 (1992)

People v. Rowland, 4 Cal.4th 238 (1992)

People v. Cain, 10 Cal.4th 1 (1995)

People v. Carpenter, 15 Cal.4th 312 (1997) 

Torture special circumstance (§190.2(a)(18))

People v. Wade, 44 Cal.3d 975 (1988);

Wade v. Calderon, 20 F.3d 1312 (9th Cir. 1994)

People v. Morales, 48 Cal.3d 527 (1989)

People v. Pensinger, 52 Cal.3d 1210 (1991) 

People v. Raley, 2 Cal.4th 870 (1992)

People v. Proctor, 4 Cal.4th 499 (1992)

People v. Crittenden, 9 Cal.4th 83 (1994)

 

AGRAVATING AND MITIGATING FACTORS (PENAL CODE §190.3)

 

 General

People v. Murtishaw, 29 Cal.3d 733 (1981)

People v. Boyd, 38 Cal.3d 762 (1985)

People v. Davenport, 41 Cal.3d 247 (1985)

People v. Tuilaepa, 4 Cal.4th 569 (1992), aff'd Tuilaepa v. California, 512 U.S. 967 (1994)

People v. Kaurish, 52 Cal.3d 648 (1990) 

People v. Whitt, 51 Cal.3d 620 (1990)

People v. Bacigalupo, 6 Cal.4th 457 (1993)

People v. Crittenden, 9 Cal.4th 83 (1994)

People v. Kirkpatrick, 7 Cal.4th 988 (1994)

People v. Medina, 11 Cal.4th 694 (1995)

Circumstances of the crime (factor (a))

People v. Edwards, 54 Cal.3d 787 (1991)

People v. Montiel, 5 Cal.4th 877 (1993)

People v. Tuilaepa, 4 Cal.4th 569 (1992), aff'd Tuilaepa v. California, 512 U.S. 967 (1994)

People v. Champion and Ross, 9 Cal.4th 879 (1995)

Forceful or violent criminal activity (factor (b))

People v. Balderas, 41 Cal.3d 144 (1985)

People v. (Blufford) Hayes, 52 Cal.3d 577 (1990)

People v. Mickle, 54 Cal.3d 140 (1991)

People v. Roberts, 2 Cal.4th 271 (1992)

People v. Tuilaepa, 4 Cal.4th 569 (1992), aff'd Tuilaepa v. California, 512 U.S. 967 (1994)

People v. Visciotti, 2 Cal.4th 1 (1992)

People v. Champion and Ross, 9 Cal.4th 879 (1995)

People v. (Noel) Jackson, 13 Cal.4th 1164 (1996)

People v. Arias, 13 Cal.4th 92 (1996) 

Prior felony conviction (factor (c))

People v. (Blufford) Hayes, 52 Cal.3d 577 (1990)

People v. Kaurish, 52 Cal.3d 648 (1990) 

People v. Price, 1 Cal.4th 324 (1991)

People v. Pride, 3 Cal.4th 195 (1992) 

People v. Champion and Ross, 9 Cal.4th 879 (1995)

People v. (Gerald) Stanley, 10 Cal.4th 764 (1995)

Extreme mental or emotional disturbance (factor (d))

People v. Turner, 8 Cal.4th 137, 8 Cal.4th 440A (1994)

People v. Marshall, 13 Cal.4th 799 (1996)

People v. Holt, 15 Cal.4th 619 (1997)

Victim participated or consented in homicidal act (factor (e))

People v. Whitt, 51 Cal.3d 620 (1990)

Moral justification factor (f))

People v. Cox, 53 Cal.3d 618 (1991)

People v. Morris, 53 Cal.3d 152 (1991)

People v. Visciotti, 2 Cal.4th 1 (1992)

Under substantial domination of another (factor (g))

People v. Adcox, 47 Cal.3d 207(1988)

People v. Morris, 53 Cal.3d 152 (1991)

Mental disease or defect or intoxication (factor (h))

People v. Murtishaw, 48 Cal.3d 1001 (1989)

People v. Ray, 13 Cal.4th 313 (1996)

People v. Holt, 15 Cal.4th 619 (1997)

Age (factor (i))

People v. Sandoval, 4 Cal.4th 155 (1992)

People v. Tuilaepa, 4 Cal.4th 569 (1992), aff'd Tuilaepa v. California, 512 U.S. 967 (1994)

Accomplice with relatively minor participation (factor (j))

People v. (Albert) Howard, 1 Cal.4th 1132 (1992)

People v. Proctor, 4 Cal.4th 499 (1992)

Extenuated gravity of crime/catch-all (factor (k))

People v. Easley, 34 Cal.3d 858 (1983)

People v. Avena, 13 Cal.4th 394 (1996)

 

JURY ISSUES

Hovey v. Superior Court, 28 Cal.3d 1 (1980)

People v. Fuentes, 54 Cal.3d 707 (1991)

People v. Cudjo, 6 Cal.4th 585 (1993)

In re Hitchings, 6 Cal.4th 97 (1993)

INEFFECTIVE ASSISTANCE OF COUNSEL

People v. Ledesma, 43 Cal.3d 171 (1987)

People v. Bloom, 48 Cal.3d 1194 (1989)

In re (Earl) Jackson, 3 Cal.4th 578 (1992)

In re Wilson, 3 Cal.4th 945 (1992)

In re Marquez, 1 Cal.4th 584 (1992)

In re Neely, 6 Cal.4th 901 (1993) 

In re Avena, 12 Cal.4th 694 (1995)

In re (Troy) Jones, 13 Cal.4th 552 (1996)

PROSECUTORIAL MISCONDUCT

People v. Benson, 52 Cal.3d 754 (1990)

People v. Rowland, 4 Cal.4th 238 (1991)

In re (Earl) Jackson, 3 Cal.4th 578 (1992)

People v. Sandoval, 4 Cal.4th 155 (1992)

People v. Quartermain, 16 Cal.4th 600 (1997)

In re Hill, 17 Cal.4th 800 (1998)

People v. (Jose) Gonzalez, 38 Cal.4th 932 (2006)

JUDICIAL MISCONDUCT

People v. (Gregory Allen) Sturm, 37 Cal.4th 1218 (2006)

ATKINS

In re Hawthorne, 35 Cal.4th 40 (2005)

People v. Superior Court (Vidal) 40 Cal.4th 999 (2007)

APPELLATE REVIEW

People v. Robertson, 33 Cal.3d 29 (1982) (Justice Broussard, concurring)

People v. Lang, 49 Cal.3d 991 (1989)

People v. Lewis, 50 Cal.3d 262 (1990)

People v. Beardslee, 53 Cal.3d 68 (1991)

People v. Cudjo, 6 Cal.4th 585 (1993)

POST-CONVICTION

In re Clark, 5 Cal.4th 750 (1993)

People v. Duvall, 9 Cal.4th 464 (1995) [non-capital]


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